Access Journal

Access to Science, Business, Innovation in the Digital Economy

Corruption perception trends: European Union countries

Published Online: Nov 17, 2023
Views: 512
Downloads: 51
Download PDF

The study analyzes the perception of the level of corruption in the countries of the European Union. We decided to summarize and explore the results of the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) for the period from 2012 to 2022 in all EU countries - Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Republic of Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden. We then compared the 2012 results with the 2022 results for each EU country and identified the three countries with the best percentage performance. Our study identified three countries in the European Union, that saw the most rapid improvement in the CPI score from 2012 to 2022: Greece (+44%), Italy (+33%) and Latvia (+20%). These achievements are interesting and significant in two contexts. Firstly, the overall rating of the EU has increased by only 2% during this period. Secondly, our established in-depth study group (Greece, Italy and Latvia) demonstrated not only a significant percentage increase, but also the persistence of a positive trend. We can identify 3 trend leaders - Greece, Italy and Latvia - both in terms of percentage growth from 2012 to 2022, and in the proportion of years where there were noticeable improvement trends. It is significant that this dynamic was not affected by the overall trend in the EU.
JEL Classification:
D73; J18; K42
How to cite:
Krivins, A., Vilks, A., Kipane, A. (2024). Corruption perception trends: European Union countries. Access to science, business, innovation in the digital economy, ACCESS Press, 5(1), 58-67,
  • Blikhar, V., Syrovackyi, V., Vinichuk, M., Kashchuk, M. Institucional and legal basis of counteracting corruption: experience of the European Union and Ukraine (2022) Financial and Credit Activity: Problems of Theory and Practice, 2 (43), pp. 365-372.
  • Dotti Sani, G.M., Guglielmi, S. Unpacking the link between gender and injunctive norms on corruption using survey data: A multilevel analysis of 30 European countries (2022) Norms, Gender and Corruption: Understanding the Nexus, pp. 78-98
  • Euronews (2022). What do we know about the European Parliament corruption scandal? Euronews. (accessed: September 2023)
  • Farinha, J., López-de-Foronda, O. The impact of corruption on investment and financing in the European Union: new insights (2023) European Journal of Finance,
  • García-Gómez, C.D., Demir, E., Díez-Esteban, J.M., Lizarzaburu Bolaños, E. Corruption, national culture and corporate investment: European evidence (2022) European Journal of Finance,
  • GCB (2021). Global Corruption Barometer – European Union 2021: citizens' views and experiences of corruption. Transparency International. (accessed: September 2023)
  • Krivins, A. (2014). Prevention of corruption in the sphere of public purchases: Interviews with experts. SHS Web of Conferences. Retrived from (accessed: September 2023)
  • Krivins, A. (2018). The motivational peculiarities of bribe-takers. Web of Conferences Volume 40 01006, 1.-10.pp. (2018). Retrived from (accessed: September 2023)
  • Krivins, A. (2019). Legislative framework of in-house procurement. Web of Conferences Volume 68 01026, 1.-10.pp. (2018). Retrived from (accessed: September 2023)
  • Martin-Russu, L. Introduction: The European Paradox of Expecting Corrupt Political Elites to Lead the Fight Against Corruption (2022) Contributions to Political Science, pp. 1-17.
  • Martin-Russu, L. Romania’s Justice and Anti-Corruption Reform: A Stubborn Divergence from European Norms in Pursuit of Personal Gains (2022) Contributions to Political Science, pp. 123-150.
  • Melnyk, D.S., Parfylo, O.A., Butenko, O.V., Tykhonova, O.V., Zarosylo, V.O. Practice of the member states of the European Union in the field of anti-corruption regulation (2022) Journal of Financial Crime, 29 (3), pp. 853-863.
  • Nenkov, N.V., Petrova M.M., Yuriy Dyachenko. (2016). Intelligence Technologies in Management and Administration of Justice, 3rd International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference on Social Sciences and Arts, SGEM 2016. BK 2: Political Sciences, Law, Finance, Economics and Tourism Conference Proceedings, Vol V Book Series: International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conferences on Social Sciences and Arts, DOI: 10.5593/SGEMSOCIAL2016/B25/S07.050, Pages: 385-392
  • Pavlidis, G. Global sanctions against corruption and asset recovery: a European approach (2023) Journal of Money Laundering Control, 26 (1), pp. 4-13.
  • Raistenskis, E., Krivins, A., Aleksejeva, L. (2023). Phehomenon of corruption in Albania: towards cigarrete smugling. Access to science, business, innovation in the digital economy, ACCESS Press, 4(2), 278-295,
  • Remeikiene, R., Gaspareniene, L., Fedajev, A., Raistenskis, E., Krivins, A. (2022). Links between crime and economic development: EU classification. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 17(4), 909–938. Retrived from (accessed: September 2023)
  • Richter, M.M. Victim of Its Own Success (?) – The European Union's Anti-corruption Policy Advice in Ukraine Between Grand Visions and (Geo)political Realities (2023) Journal of Common Market Studies,
  • Saiz-Alvarez, J.M. Fraud Prevention, Political Corruption, and Anti-Corruption Strategies: The European Anti-Fraud Office (2023) Management Strategies and Tools for Addressing Corruption in Public and Private Organizations, pp. 78-95.
  • Teichmann, F.M.J., Wittmann, C. International implications of corruption in Eastern European prosecution offices: a field report (2023) Journal of Financial Crime, 30 (2), pp. 512-521.
  • Teivāns-Treinovskis, J., Jefimovs, N., Velika, R. & Kriviņš, A. (2022). Conditions for application of criminal liability to the board of a company in the legal system of the Republic of Latvia. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 9(4), 45-55. Retrived from (accessed: September 2023)
  • Thanh, H.L. Accelerating Digital Transformation Implementation in the Fight Against Corruption? Evidence From European Countries Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic (2022) International Journal of Electronic Government Research, 18 (2)
  • Tiganasu, R., Pascariu, G.C., Lupu, D. Competitiveness, fiscal policy and corruption: evidence from Central and Eastern European countries (2022) Oeconomia Copernicana, 13 (3), pp. 667-698.
  • Transparency International (2022). Corruption Perceptions Index. Retrieved from (accessed: September 2023)
  • Van de Walle, S., Migchelbrink, K. Institutional quality, corruption, and impartiality: the role of process and outcome for citizen trust in public administration in 173 European regions (2022) Journal of Economic Policy Reform, 25 (1), pp. 9-27.
  • Vasić, B., Pekić, I., Šimić, G. Energy security of the European Union and corruption in Central Asia as the main challenges for the European sustainable energy future (2023) Energy, Sustainability and Society, 13 (1), art. no. 31, DOI: 10.1186/s13705-023-00406-3
  • Vilks, A., Kipāne, A. (2022). Problems of eco-criminology in the context of economic development. Pakistan Journal of Criminology, 14(2), 133-148. Retrived from (accessed: September 2023)
  • Vilks, A. (2017). Evaluation of Corruption prevalence in context of the Development of the Latvian Economy. Society. Integration. Education. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference. Volume IV, May 26th-27th, 2017. pp.427-435
  • Yessengeldin, B., Khussainova, Zh., Kurmanova, A., Syzdykova, D., Zhanseitov, A. (2019). Exploitation of Natural Resources in Kazakhstan: Judicial Practice for Foreign Investment. Journal of East Asia and International Law (JEAIL), Volume 12(1), pp.169-179 DOI:

Publish your science journal

If you like ACCESS journals system, you can publish your journal with us at a reasonable price