Access Journal

Access to Science, Business, Innovation in the Digital Economy

Sustainable development goals progress in the European Union: correlation with EEPSE green economy index

Published Online: Apr 17, 2022
Views: 1087
Downloads: 82
Download PDF

The international scientific community has long acknowledged the importance of analysing green economy. At the same time, there is a need for developing a comprehensive index, which would embrace all the aspects of green economy development. Objectives: To that end, a group of scholars of Daugavpils University proposes to use an EEPSE Green Economy Index (which combines educational, economic, political, societal, and environmental indicators). This study aims to present the results of their research Methods/Approach: The EEPSE Green Economy Index, presented within the present paper, is based on the Quintuple Helix Model. The use of the model is substantiated, inter alia by qualitative content analysis. Results: The results of the present study advocate the efficiency of the Index, showing its potential in performing current analysis and highlighting its correlation with sustainable development goals progress in the European Union countries. Conclusions: Thus, it can be concluded that the EEPSE Green Economy Index can be used as a tool for analysing the level of green economy development in a particular country, as well as its progress towards implementation of sustainable development goals (SDGs).
JEL Classification:
C43, O44, O52, O57, R11, Q20, Q30
How to cite:
Rybalkin, O. (2022). Sustainable development goals progress in the European Union: correlation with EEPSE green economy index. Access to science, business, innovation in digital economy, ACCESS Press, 3(2): 121-135.
  • Akoglu, H. (2018). User’s guide to correlation coefficients. Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine, 18(3): 91–93. doi: 10.1016/j.tjem.2018.08.001
  • Ayvazyan S. (2005). Development and analysis of integral indicators of the quality of life of the population of the Samara region. pp. 24-25. (RU).
  • Barcellos-Paula, L.; De la Vega, I.; Gil-Lafuente, A.M. (2021). The Quintuple Helix of Innovation Model and the SDGs: Latin-American Countries’ Case and Its Forgotten Effects. Mathematics, 9, p.416. (accessed April 2022).
  • Barth, T.D. (2011). The idea of a green new deal in a Quintuple Helix Model of knowledge, know-how and innovation. International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development 1(2):1–14.
  • Carayannis, E. G.; Barth, T. D.; Campbell, D. F. J. (2012). The Quintuple Helix innovation model: global warming as a challenge and driver for innovation. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 1 (2), 1-12. DOI:
  • Carayannis, E. G., Barth, T. D., Campbell, D. F J. (2012). The Quintuple Helix innovation model: global warming as a challenge and driver for innovation. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 1 (2) (Modified from Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff (2000), p. 111) and Carayannis and Campbell (2009), p. 207; 2010, p. 62)). (accessed March 2022).
  • Carayannis, E. G.; Campbell, D. F. J. (2009). “Mode 3” and “Quadruple Helix”: toward a 21st century fractal innovation ecosystem. International Journal of Technology Management 46(3/4):201–234. Retrieved from:'Mode_3'_and_'Quadruple_Helix'_Toward_a_21st_century_fractal_innovation_ecosystem (accessed March 2022).
  • Carayannis, E. G.; Campbell, D. F. J. (2010). Triple Helix, Quadruple Helix and Quintuple Helix and how do knowledge, innovation and the environment relate to each other? A proposed framework for a trans-disciplinary analysis of sustainable development and social ecology. International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development 1(1):41–69. Retrieved from: (accessed March 2022).
  • Carayannis, E. G., Campbell, D. F. J. (2012). Mode 3 knowledge production in quadruple helix innovation systems. 21st-century democracy, innovation, and entrepreneurship for development. SpringerBriefs in business (Vol. 7). Springer, New York. Retrieved from: (accessed March 2022).
  • Carayannis E. G., Campbell David F. J. (2017). "Quadruple and Quintuple Helix Innovation Systems", Innovations, 2017/3 (No 54), p. 173-195. Retrieved from: (accessed March 2022).
  • Carayannis, E.G., Grigoroudis, E., Campbell, D.F.J., Meissner, D. and Stamati, D. (2018), The ecosystem as helix: an exploratory theory-building study of regional co-opetitive entrepreneurial ecosystems as Quadruple/Quintuple Helix Innovation Models. R&D Management, 48: 148-162.
  • Etzkowitz, H., Leydesdorff, L. (2000). The dynamics of innovation: from National Systems and “Mode 2” to a Triple Helix of university-industry-government relations. Research Policy 29: 109–123. 10.1016/S0048-7333(99)00055-4. Retrieved from: (accessed March, 2022)
  • European Commission. (2019). The European Green Deal. Retrieved from: (accessed March, 2022)
  • Eurostat. (2022a). SDG 9 'Industry, Innovation and INFRASTRUCTURE'. Retrieved from: (accessed March, 2022)
  • Eurostat. (2022b). Smoking prevalence by countries. Retrieved from: (accessed March, 2022)
  • Eurostat. (2022c). Share of individuals having at least basic digital skills. Retrieved from: (accessed March, 2022)
  • Grundel, I., Dahlström, M. (2016). A Quadruple and Quintuple Helix Approach to Regional Innovation Systems in the Transformation to a Forestry-Based Bioeconomy. Journal of the Knowledge Economy 7, 963–983.
  • Hancké. B., Laurenz, M. (2020) The political economy of electric cars. European Politics and Policy, December 16th, 2020. Retrieved from: (accessed April 2021).
  • IAE. (2021). Policies to promote electric vehicle deployment. Global EV Outlook 2021 Retrieved from: (accessed March, 2022)
  • Kane, M. (2021). European Countries Listed By Plug-In Electric Car Market Share In Q1-Q4 2020. Retrieved from: (accessed April 2021).
  • Kasztelan, A. (2017). Green Growth, Green Economy and Sustainable Development: Terminological and Relational Discourse. Prague Economic Papers, 26(4), 487–499. Retrieved from: (accessed March, 2022)
  • Kasztelan, A. (2018). Multi-Criteria Analysis of Green Competitiveness of the EU Countries. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on European Integration 2018. Publisher: VSB - Technical University of Ostrava Sokolska trlda 33, 702 00 Ostrava I, Czech Republic. Michaela Stanićkova, Lukaś Melecky, Eva Kovarova, Karefina Dvorokova. Jan Prażak. ISBN 978-80-248-4169-4. ISSN 2571-029X.
  • Lavrinenko, O.; Ignatjeva, S.; Ohotina, A.; Rybalkin, O.; Lazdans, D. (2019). The Role of Green Economy in Sustainable Development (Case Study: The EUStates), Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues 6(3): 1113-1126. Retrieved from: (accessed March, 2022)
  • Leal-Millán, A., & Antonio, L. (2020). Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship. Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship,1–7.
  • OECD. 2017. Green growth indicators (2017). OECD Green Growth Studies/OECD Publishing, Paris. Retrieved from: (accessed March, 2022)
  • Rybalkin,O., Lavrinenko, O., Ignatjeva, S., Danilevica, A. (2021). Introduction of EEPSE Green Economy Index for the analysis of regional trends. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues 9(1), 415-435. Retrieved from: (accessed March, 2022)
  • Ryszawska, B. (2015). Green Economy Indicators. January 2015. University of Wroclaw, pp. 1-23.
  • Spaini, C., Markianidou, P. and Doranova, A. (2018) EU Eco-Innovation Index 2018. Retrieved from: (accessed March, 2022)
  • Swart, J., & Groot, L. (2020). Sustainable development: The transition to the green economy. Quality - Access to Success, 15(SUPPL.1), 129–133.
  • Vertakova, Y., & Plotnikov, V. (2017). Problems of sustainable development worldwide and public policies for green economy. Economic Annals-XXI, 166(7–8), 4–10.
  • Vītola Z., Aleksejeva L., Ostrovska I. (2021) Multiannual Financial Framework Investments of the European Union in the Context of Green Goals. SGEM GeoConference 2021 proceedings. Book number: 5.1, pp: 899-908. doi:10.5593/sgem2021/5.1/s21.109
  • Vivid Economics. (2020). Greenness of Stimulus Index. Finance for Biodiversity Initiative. Retrieved from: (accessed April, 2022)
  • Wendling, Z. A., Emerson, J. W., de Sherbinin, A., Esty, D. C., et al. (2020). 2020 Environmental Performance Index. New Haven, CT: Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy. Retrieved from: (accessed April, 2022)

Publish your science journal

If you like ACCESS journals system, you can publish your journal with us at a reasonable price