Access Journal

Access to Science, Business, Innovation in the Digital Economy

Prospects for intermodal and container transportation for Georgia's integration into the global transport market

Published Online: Dec 6, 2022
Published: Jan 31, 2023
Views: 405
Downloads: 13
Download PDF

Objectives: Understanding of advantages and disadvantages of Georgia as a transport corridor country in intermodal transportation. The challenges, strong and weak spots of intermodal transportation through the transport corridor on which lays Georgia. Overview of existing Black Sea basin and Georgian seaports and container terminals, their throughputs, and obstacles inherent for the container business in the black sea in common, which is the main obstacle to receiving bigger vessels. Methods/Approach: During the research has been used empirical and theoretical methods. In order to study container shipping has been reviewed and analyzed the data published by Georgian and foreign publications and scientific works, which made it possible to study the current situation and dynamics of container shipping in Georgia, as well as to study and investigate the existing problems and factors in this sphere, which affected the increase in the volume of cargo turnover. Analyzing the data provided by different information sources such as the National Statistical Office, shipping companies, terminal operators, and government bodies, made it possible to observe the increase in container shipping in recent years and calculate the cumulative average gross rate of container turnovers. Results: It was determined and explained that intermodal land transportation of containers through Georgia could not compete with maritime transportation turnovers, but still has a significant part as a backup of alternative transportation modes and delivery terms. Also, has been found that the growing trend of container turnover in the Black Sea countries and Georgia, in particular, has a strong and positive dynamic. Conclusions: The study shows how Georgia, as an intermodal and transit transportation country, improved its cargo turnover in a time of ongoing challenges in the region. It also shows the causal relationship between the sanctions and increased cargo turnover through the Georgian Sea ports. As a recommendation is provided suggestions to improve Georgia's cargo turnover and throughput.
JEL Classification:
F15, H54, R40
How to cite:
Gechbaia, B.; Tsilosani, A. (2023). Prospects for intermodal and container transportation for Georgia's integration into the global transport market. Access to science, business, innovation in digital economy, ACCESS Press, 4(1), 85-101,
  • Abuseridze, G., Petrova, M., Zahars, V., Tumalavičius, V. (2022). Transformation of Georgia’s trade policy strategy: from frailty to sustainability. Access to science, business, innovation in digital economy, ACCESS Press, 3(1): 43-52.
  • (2020, December 9). First China-bound freight train of Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway arrives in Georgia. Retrieved from (accessed: 13 March 2022)
  • Ambra, T., Caris, An & Macharis, C. (2019). Towards freight transport system unification: reviewing and combining the advancements in the physical internet and synchromodal transport research. International Journal of Production Research , 57(6), 1606-1623. DOI: 10.1080/00207543.2018.1494392
  • Anakliadevelopment. (2022). Retrieved from (accessed: 15 April 2022)
  • APM Terminals. (2022). Retrieved from (accessed: 19 April 2022)
  • Boon-itt, S., Wong, C.Y., Wong, Christina W.Y. (2017). Service supply chain management process capabilities: Measurement development. International Journal of Production Economics, 193, 1-11.
  • Business Media Georgia. (2019, December). Why there are queues at the Port of Poti - Klaus Laursen's explanation. Retrieved from (accessed: 01 March 2022) (in GE)
  • Business Media Georgia. (2022, October). Car exports increased by 75% - countries where the most cars pass from Georgia. Retrieved from (accessed: 19 April 2022) (in GE)
  • Carbone, V., M. De Martino. (2003). The changing role of ports in supply-chain management: an empirical analysis. Maritime Policy & Management, 30(4), 305-320. doi:10.1080/0308883032000145618.
  • Caris, An & Limbourg, Sabine & Macharis, Cathy & van Lier, Tom & Cools, Mario. (2014). Integration of inland waterway transport in the intermodal supply chain: a taxonomy of research challenges. Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 126-136.
  • Chee Yew Wong, Noorliza, K. (2010). Explaining the competitive advantage of logistics service providers: A resource-based view approach. International Journal of Production Economics, 128(1), 51-67.
  • Chen, L., & Notteboom, T.E. (2011). Determinants for Assigning Value-added Logistics Services to Logistics Centers Within a Supply Chain Configuration. Journal of International Logistics and Trade, 10, 3-41.
  • (2022, 11 1). Can the country's infrastructure handle the increased cargo flow in the Middle Corridor? Retrieved from 20through%20the%20Middle,transit%20corridor%E2%80%99s%20capacity%20and (accessed: 13 May 2022)
  • Container News. (2022). Black Sea Container Market Review 2021: 2M Alliance partners remain the leaders of the region. Retrieved from (accessed: 13 May 2022)
  • Dürr, E. & Giannopoulos, G.A. (2003). Sits: A system for uniform intermodal freight transport information exchange. International Journal of Transport Management, Vol. 1 No. 3, pp. 175-186.
  • Elofson, G., & Robinson, W. F. (2007). Collective customer collaboration impacts on supply-chain performance. International Journal of Production Research, 45(11), 2567–2594.
  • Esper, Terry L. and Lisa R. Williams. (2003). The Value of Collaborative Transportation Management (CTM): Its Relationship to CPFR and Information Technology. Transportation Journal, 42(4), 55-65.
  • Fabbe-Costes, N., Roussat, C., Colin, J. (2011). Future sustainable supply chains: what should companies scan in their environment? International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, 2011, Special Issue: Best Papers from EurOMA 2009, 41 (3), pp.228-252. ⟨10.1108/09600031111123778⟩. ⟨hal-01419258⟩
  • Gunasekaran, A., Ngai, E.W. (2004). Information Systems in Supply Chain Integration and Management. European Journal of Operational Research, 159(2), 269-295.
  • Henderson, S., Nelson, B.L. (2006). Handbooks in Operations Research and Management Science: Simulation. Elsevier Science. ISSN 978-0444514288, 678 p.
  • Henstra, D., Ruijgrok, C., Tavasszy, L. (2007). Globalized Trade, Logistics and Intermodality: European Perspectives, Chapters, in: Thomas R. Leinbach & Cristina Capineri (ed.), Globalized Freight Transport, chapter 5, Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Insider. (2022). Retrieved from (accessed: 02 May 2022)
  • Introducing the Bosphorus-Max. (2015). Riviera Newsletters. Retrieved from opinion/introducing-the-bosphorus-max-35105 (accessed: 19 April 2022)
  • Ishfaq, R., Sox C. R. (2010). Intermodal logistics: The interplay of financial, operational and service issues. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 46(6), 926-949.
  • Isidore, C. (2022). Inflation rises at fastest pace in 40 years, pushed up by record gas prices. CNN Business. Retrieved from (accessed: 19 June 2022)
  • Karia, N., Chee Yew Wong. (2013). The impact of logistics resources on the performance of Malaysian logistics service providers. Production Planning & Control, 24(7), 589-606. DOI: 10.1080/09537287.2012.659871
  • Kembro, J., Selviaridis, K., & Naslund, D. (2014). Theoretical perspectives on information sharing in supply chains: a systematic literature review and conceptual framework. Supply Chain Management, 19(5-6), 609-625.
  • Lai, K.-h. (2004). Service capability and performance of logistics service providers. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 40(5), 385-399.
  • Laurent Fedi, A. L. (2019). The facilitating role of IT systems for legal compliance: the case of port community systems and container Verified Gross Mass (VGM). Supply Chain Forum: An International Journal , 20(1), 29-42.
  • Lavissière, A., L. Fedi, and A. Cheaitou. (2014). A Modern Concept of Free Ports in the 21st Century: A Definition Towards a Supply Chain Added Value. Supply Chain Forum: An International Journal, 15(3): 22–28. doi:10.1080/16258312.2014.11517348.
  • Leukel, J., Stefan Kirn. (2011). A service-oriented approach to freight routing in intermodal transport systems. Conference: 10th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik. 16-18 February 2011 Zurich, Switzerland //Abraham Bernstein and Gerhard Schwabe (Editors), Vol.I, pp. 292-301, ISBN: 978-1-4467-9233-9
  • Mahmudov, F. (2021). Turkey approves development plans for Istanbul canal. Retrieved from (accessed: 05 April 2022)
  • Mambra, S. (2020). 6 Bosphorus Strait Facts You Must Know. Marine Insight. Retrieved from (accessed: 10 May 2022)
  • Martino, M.D., Errichiello, L., Marasco, A., Morvillo, A. (2013). Logistics innovation in Seaports: An inter-organizational perspective. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 8, 123-133.
  • Matyushenko, I., Hlibko, S., Petrova, M. M., Pasmor, M. S., & Loktionova, M. (2020). Assessment of the development of foreign trade in high-tech production of Ukraine under the association with the EU. Business, Management and Education, 18(1), 157-182.
  • Mentzer, J.T. and Konrad, B.P. (1991). An efficency/effectivness approach to logistics perfomance analysis. Journal of Business Logistics, 12(1), 33-62.
  • Min, H., Seung-Sik Shin, Yong-Kon Lim, Jong-Won Park & Yong Kap Cho (2014) The Use of X-ray Scanning Technology for Improving Maritime Security: An Exploratory Study. Supply Chain Forum: An International Journal, 15:2, 48-58, DOI: 10.1080/16258312.2014.11517341
  • Min, S.H., Mentzer, J.T., & Ladd, R. (2007). A market orientation in supply chain management. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 35, 507-522.
  • Misachi, J. (2021). Bosporus Strait. Retrieved from bosporus-strait.html (accessed: 11 May 2022)
  • Мitkov, M., Radukanov, S., Petrova, M. (2021). Risk management in maritime transport of goods through insurance. International Conference on Sustainable Transport System and Maritime Logistics ISTSML’21, June 24, Batumi, Georgia. MATEC Web of Conferences 339, 0100 /01003.
  • Nath, P., Nachiappan, S. & Ramanathan, R. (2010) 'The impact of marketing capability, operations capability and diversification strategy on performance: A resource-based view', Industrial Marketing Management, 39(2), pp.317-329
  • Notteboom, T. (2008). The Relationship between Seaports and the Inter-Modal Hinterland in Light of Global Supply Chains: European challenges. OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre Discussion Papers. Antwerp.
  • Passage Restrictions. (2022). Retrieved from (accessed: 22 April 2022)
  • Panayides, Photis M.M. (2008). Evaluating the integration of seaport container terminals in supply chains. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 38(7), 562-584.
  • Panayides, Photis M.M. & Dong-Wook Song (2009) Port integration in global supply chains: measures and implications for maritime logistics, International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications, 12 (2), 133-145, DOI: 10.1080/13675560902749407
  • Reuters. (2022, 1 March). World's largest container lines suspend shipping to Russia. Retrieved from (accessed: 15 April 2022)
  • Shepard, W. (2016, January 28). Why The China-Europe 'Silk Road' Rail Network Is Growing Fast. Retrieved from (accessed: 30 April 2022)
  • UK P&I. (2011). Iranian port operator included in US sanctions - Updated. Retrieved from (accessed: 15 April 2022)
  • Ukrainian News. (2022, November). 4 More Vessels Leave Ukrainian Seaports Through Grain Corridor - Infrastructure Ministry. Retrieved from (accessed: 19 April 2022)
  • UNCTAD -United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. (2020). Challenges, Policy Options, and the Way Forward. UNCTAD.
  • UNTCAD. (2017). Review of Maritime Transport 2017. Retrieved from (accessed: 09 June 2022)

Publish your science journal

If you like ACCESS journals system, you can publish your journal with us at a reasonable price